Monthly Archives: November 2010
Know Islam And Muslim
Who are Muslims?
How many Muslims are there in the world?
There are 1.5 billion Muslims worldwide, living in majority populations in 56 countries including Malaysia, Indonesia, Niger, Egypt and Turkey. There are also significant Muslim populations living in India, China and Russia. In sharp contrast to popular assumption, only 20 percent of the global number of Muslims is of Arab origin. There are an estimated two million living in Britain.
Are all Muslims the same?
There is an extraordinary diversity of Muslim cultures stretching from North Africa to Southeast Asia and from Europe to Latin America. There are many Muslim interpretations of Islam that has invoked different schools of theology and law, along with a rich tradition of mysticism commonly known as Sufism. While this diversity exists, there is one underlying unity of belief that binds all Muslims together – the belief in the oneness of God and of his final Messenger, Muhammad.
What do Muslims believe?
The basis of the Islamic faith is the belief in One God (Allah, the Creator, Sustainer, Ruler and Judge of the universe), His prophets such as Abraham, Moses and Jesus, concluding with the last Prophet, Muhammad. Muslims believe in angels, in the books of revelation (Torah, Gospel), the Day of Judgement, in God’s Will, and in Heaven and Hell. Together, these beliefs constitute the seven articles of faith.
Muslims regard Christians and Jews as the ‘People of the Book’, believers who received, through prophets, revelation in the form of scriptures or revealed books from God. Islam, commonly perceived as the ‘youngest’ of the monotheistic religions, is from the Muslim point of view, the original as well as the final revelation of God. The Quran says, “He established for you the same religion as that which He established for Noah, that which We have sent to you as an inspiration through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, namely that you should remain steadfast and make no divisions within it.” [Quran, Chapter 42, Verse 13] Muslims believe that the revelation received by Prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel served the purpose of correcting the human error that had become part of the belief systems of Judaism and Christianity.
Know Islam And Muslim
Who was Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him)?
Muhammad was born in 570 in Mecca, modern day Saudi Arabia, to a single mother whose husband died before she gave birth. Muhammad was of noble blood, and it was the custom for those children of higher social standing to have a wet nurse. A Bedouin woman named Halima cared for him, and took him into the harsh desert to live with her people. For such a young child it was a challenging environment. But it was here that Muhammad would develop his first close connection with nature, and spend most of his time in solitude contemplating the world around him.
He returned to his mother, Amina, who took him to visit his father’s grave, but on the return journey she fell dangerously ill. Muhammad was barely six years old when he faced the loss of another parent. Later his own experience would help him to encourage compassion for orphans, telling his companions that kindness shown to parentless children would grant them Paradise.
The shepherd and the businessman
Muhammad went to live with his grandfather Abdul Muttalib, and spent two happy years with him, until he died when Muhammad was eight years old. Again he had to face emotional and physical upheaval, moving to live with his uncle Abu Talib. As a young boy, Muhammad earned his living as a shepherd, a role he was later to speak about with fondness: “All the prophets of God were shepherds”. Later he would become renowned for his honest dealing with people in business and trade.
A wealthy businesswoman named Khadijah requested Muhammad’s expertise in negotiating a business venture for her. When she heard of how he secured more than she expected, she was impressed and made enquiries about his character. On hearing the accounts of his generous and noble nature, she sent a proposal to the 25 year old man. Khadijah was a widow some fifteen years older than Muhammad, and had children from two previous marriages; she was intelligent, independent and kind. Muhammad accepted her offer. Khadijah and Muhammad’s marriage was a happy and harmonious one: they consulted, supported and cared for each other in equal measure. She was his first love, the first he turned to for support, and the first to acknowledge his prophethood. They had four daughters together who they cherished, and two sons, but they tragically both died in infancy.
Muhammad had always treated those around him with honour, kindness and respect. Yet he was troubled. Troubled by the injustices he saw around him of backward tribal practices – of female infanticide, of oppression of the vulnerable and of inequality. He had distanced himself from ignorance, superstition and the practice of idol worship. He often retreated to a cave on the mountain of Hira to reflect, wondering what he could do to change such deep-rooted customs.
It was now 610, Muhammad was only aged forty but at a point in his life where he had already faced great sorrows: losing both his parents at an early age, his grandfather and two young sons. One night, when he again went to the secluded cave to be alone with his thoughts, he encountered an experience that would dramatically change his life, his society and the wider world.
“Read!” a voice called out him. It was the angel Gabriel. Muhammad was frightened but responded he could not read – he was indeed illiterate. Again Gabriel commanded him to read, and a third time said “Read! In the name of your Sustainer. He who taught man by the pen that which he did not know.” Following this divine visitation, Muhammad went immediately to the only person he could relate what had happened and find solace in, his wife. Shaking, and fearing he had been possessed, Khadijah wrapped him in a covering and comforted him. This was the first of many revelations that would come to him over a period of twenty three years.
God had chosen Muhammad as his final messenger, the last in a line of many prophets before him, like Abraham, Moses, Joseph, and Jesus. All had brought the message of worshipping One God, of enjoining good and forbidding bad. But this message had become corrupted by men, and the moment had come once more to bring people back towards the truth. The Quran emphasised the belief in the Oneness of God, related the creation of the heavens and the earth, stories of past prophets, the equality and sanctity of humanity, and the etiquettes of human behaviour.
Muhammad had a great task ahead of him. In preaching God’s word, he would come face to face with rejection, abuse, humiliation and even banishment from his own people. He had to overturn his society’s backward practices, instructing them to embrace a set of universal principles that would unite all the tribes, provide a benchmark for justice, would eradicate racism, encourage them in acts of charity, protect those the vulnerable, abolish the rigid class system, raise the status of women to an honoured position, and bring everyone back to the belief in one God.
But the leading tribe of the Meccans, the Quraysh, were staunch in their opposition. Muhammad had a small group of companions who believed in his message, and these supporters would be targeted by the Quraysh who embarked on a campaign of torture. The first to die for Islam was a woman named Sumayyah, who after enduring the cruelty inflicted on her, was finally stabbed to death. She is a woman held in high esteem by Muslims for her steadfastness and strength of character, and one of the few guaranteed Paradise.
It was now 615 and the situation for the Muslims had not improved. Muhammad heard of a just and compassionate ruler in Abyssinia, a Christian king who might offer refuge for the Muslims and sent 100 Muslim men and women to be placed under the king’s protection. Muhammad did not hesitate to turn to those of other faiths for their protection, he trusted and worked with others who had moral standing and dealt with justice no matter what their faith or background. His own uncle, Abu Talib, who he loved and respected greatly was not a Muslim, but he offered invaluable support to his nephew.
The Quraysh, unable to break this small but growing band of Muslims, who were growing in number by the day, resorted to banishing them, forbidding any tribes to help them. Tribes depended on each other for sustenance, trade and protection in the harsh desert environment, so this embargo would mean starvation, deprivation and vulnerability. The embargo went on for three years, during which Muhammad and his companions retreated to the valleys surrounding Mecca to live a very difficult life. The ban was finally lifted, but it had taken its toll on the Prophet’s beloved wife, Khadijah. She died soon afterwards in a year known as The Year of Sorrow.
Muhammad’s grief was deep. He had lost his strongest supporter and confidante, the mother of his children. The same year, his uncle, who had been his protector, died in 620. Yet his mission was far from over, and he had the duty to continue his message and to protect those who had gathered around him. He thought of moving the Muslims far away from the relentless oppression of the Quraysh.
Every prophet has his miracle, and it is said that the Quran was Muhammad’s miracle. Yet the Night Journey joins the many miraculous stories about prophets before him – of Jesus’ birth, of Jonah and the Whale, of Moses’ parting of the Red Sea.
Two years after the death of Khadijah, one evening Muhammad fell asleep by the Kabah and was awoken by the angel Gabriel who showed him a white, winged horse. They both mounted and began the journey to Jerusalem where he met a group of prophets; amongst them were Abraham and Moses. Muhammad led them in prayer at the Temple Mount. Then Muhammad again mounted the winged creature with Gabriel and went on a journey that transcended time and space through the seven heavens. It was at the highest level that he received instructions for the five daily prayers.
Muhammad had been was profoundly affected by this spiritual and physical journey, seeing the wonders of the heavens, and meeting the brotherhood of prophets. Yet it was also a trial – when Muhammad recounted his experience, it left him open to more insults and jeers. Yet the lesson remained that true faith meant belief in the unseen and in the miracles of God.
It was the norm in Arabia for men to take many wives, but Muhammad remained monogamous to his first wife Khadijah throughout their marriage. A year after her death, he was encouraged to marry again. His subsequent marriages were formed for various reasons: to form alliances with other tribes in order to secure the for survival of the Muslim community, to protect those who were threatened because of their faith, and to cement friendships. Many of his wives were widows with children, or divorcees. Aishah was the daughter of his closest friend Abu Bakr. Her marriage to Muhammad was arranged when she was very young, but their marriage was not consummated until she entered puberty. Aishah had an incredible intellect, and she became a respected scholar and was skilled in medical knowledge. She spoke of Muhammad’s kindness and generosity to all his wives, a quality that he insisted upon from every husband to their spouse.
The number of Muslims was growing, and along with it grew the need to live free of tyranny. Many people had embraced Islam in the city of Medina, some 200 miles from Mecca. Muhammad decided his companions should relocate to where they would enjoy the freedom of religious expression and the confidence of a being a real community. Agreements were made with the Jews of Medina, and all lived in protection, liberty and coexistence.
The move was a blow to the pride of the Quraysh who still tormented the few Muslims who remained in Mecca. In addition to their persecution, they confiscated all their property and belongings to show Muhammad that he had not won. Incensed by news of this, Muhammad organised expeditions on Meccan caravans in order to take compensation. He also sent missions to find out information of the Quraysh’s plots – he knew that an attack was likely. Yet one mission resulted in the death of a Quraysh leader despite Muhammad’s clear instruction that no conflict was to take place. A clash was imminent.
For the past thirteen years until this point, the Muslims were instructed in passive resistance, but a revelation now gave permission to fight those who oppressed them and had driven them from their homes.
Muhammad had set off with over three hundred Muslims to intercept a caravan in order to take more goods in compensation, but the Quraysh found out about his plans and sent a thousand-strong army. The Muslims were not prepared for war, but they were determined to face their enemies. They won an incredible victory in what came to be known as the Battle of Badr.
The conflict was not at an end however, and more wars took place between the Quraysh, their allies and the Muslims, the latter suffering many losses. Muhammad now had military and political power, sending a strong message that he and his people would not be trampled upon any further. As his influence increased, so too did attempts to assassinate him.
After years of hostility, power shifted towards Muhammad and the Muslims, and a treaty was finally agreed between the Quraysh and Muhammad, but this was violated by the former and Muhammad marched on Mecca in 630. But he took Mecca without bloodshed, peaceably and with dignity. Muhammad was in a position of power to seek revenge on those who had tortured and persecuted the Muslims, but he did not abuse his power, choosing instead to conquer Mecca with profound humility. His great mercy and compassion deeply impressed the tribes of Mecca, and a great number embraced Islam.
The Farewell Pilgrimage
Muhammad, accompanied by one hundred thousand of his companions, performed the final pilgrimage of his life to the Kabah in Mecca. Standing on what is known as the Mount of Mercy, he delivered his last speech with messages that would resound through time. He spoke of the equality of humankind, of women’s rights, of fraternity, of doing good, of never oppressing anyone, of human rights and justice.
Soon after the farewell sermon, Muhammad fell very ill with a fever which weakened him greatly. Though frail, he led his last prayer in the mosque in Medina, and repeated again and again that the poor and the vulnerable must be treated well. His final moments were with his wife Aishah. He rested his head in her lap while she stroked his head. Suddenly she felt his head become heavier. He had breathed his last breath.
He died in 632 aged sixty three.
Muhammad caused a revolution in the space of twenty three years, shaping the course of history the effects of which we still see today. His commitment to the enduring values of justice, freedom, fraternity, charity and equality carried a universal message. What began as a small band of followers in seventh century Arabia has now grown to a global community of 1.5 billion, a fifth of the world’s population.
Muslims everywhere model their own lives on his behaviour, from prayer to politics, personal hygiene to community involvement. This one man continues to inspire millions of lives fourteen centuries after he lived.
Know Islam And Muslim
What is Islam?
What is Allah?
Allah is the name for God in Arabic. Allah is also known by his attributes, like The Compassionate, the Merciful, the Loving. Although we use the English pronoun ‘He’ to refer to God, in Islam and in the Arabic language, Allah is a neutral term.
In seventh century Arabia, when society was gripped by idolatry, the divide between rich and poor was growing, and the Arab tribal system was thriving, Muhammad received a revelation that would transform society both within the Arabian peninsula and significantly in other parts of the world. Christianity and Judaism also originated in the Middle East, and the Prophet made clear that far from bringing a new message, he was in fact calling people back to the one true God and to the way of life people had left. The revelations he received corrected distortions that had crept into earlier revelation and called all to return to the ‘Straight Path’ of Islam.
Belief in one God, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage. These form the foundation of faith for every Muslim.
- The basic declaration of belief, or Shahada is, “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger.” Declaring this is all that is required of a person who wishes to embrace Islam.
- Prayer, or Salah is the performing of the five daily prayers, at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sundown, and nightfall.
- Alms, or Zakah, is obligatory on every Muslim as a tax to benefit the poor and needy. Every adult Muslim must contribute a 2.5% of his or her wealth (not income) each year.
- Fasting, or Sawm which takes place in the month of Ramadan, involves self discipline and humility through abstention from food, drink and sex from dawn to sunset. It encourages a sense of empathy with those who go hungry around the world and to give charity. It is a time to focus on spiritual nourishment and refinement of character. It ends with the celebration of Eid-ul Fitr.
- Pilgrimage, or Hajj, is to be performed once in a Muslim’s lifetime to the first House of God, the Kabah in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Pilgrims dress simply in white garments to symbolise the equality of humankind. At least two million Muslims go to perform Hajj in the final month of the Islamic calendar each year. The end of Hajj is marked by the second of two major Muslim festivals, Eid-ul Adha.
The Quran, Arabic for ‘recitation’ or ‘reading’, is the scripture of Muslims. They believe that the word of God was revealed through the Angel Gabriel over a period of twenty three years to Muhammad, who died illiterate. He neither authored nor edited the Quran, Muslims believe it is the eternal, literal word of God, preserved and collated in a divinely commanded order.
The Quran was written down during the Prophet’s lifetime in the seventh century by twenty nine scribes who would record the revelations on palm rasps and animal skin. Many of the Prophet’s companions would memorise the entire Quran with the Prophet.The 114 chapters of the Quran speak of the majesty of God, His creation of mankind and life, of the Life Hereafter and the stories of Prophets. The Quran calls for social and religious reform, and places great emphasis on social justice – the rights of women, orphans, the equality of humankind, and moral and ethical principles to govern all aspects of life.
What are Hadith?
Hadiths are a collection of sayings and actions by the Prophet Muhammad, which were well documented verbal reports by his companions. There are thousands of hadiths from which have been derived the Sunnah, or the Prophet’s way of life. They cover all aspects of living: how to be a good neighbour, how to refrain from slander, how to mourn and even how to maintain personal hygiene. Muslims seek to emulate the Prophetic example in their daily lives as much as possible.
What is the Kabah?
This building is the most sacred space in the Muslim world. It sits in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and is considered the first house built for the worship of the one God. First built by Adam, the first man and prophet, it was destroyed by floods, but later rebuilt by Abraham and his son Ishmael. By the time of the Prophet Muhammad, it has fallen under pagan Arab rule and used as a shrine for their 360 idols. Muhammad restored the Kabah to its original worship of one God.
How is Islam similar to Christianity and Judaism?
Islam, Christianity and Judaism are all monotheistic faiths worshipping one God. All share common beliefs in prophets and divine revelation. All stress moral rights and responsibilities, and accountability on the Day of Judgment leading to reward or punishment in the afterlife. Each faith emphasises its covenant with God, through Moses for Judaism, Jesus for Christianity and Muhammad for Islam. Islam recognises the validity of Judaism and Christianity and expresses respect for the prophets mentioned in their Scriptures as they are also mentioned in the Quran. Muslims believe in Moses, and Jesus, but they do not believe Jesus as the son of God, rather he was a Prophet born in a miracle birth to Mary. The Quran even mentions the Virgin Mary more often than the Bible, demonstrating the high-regard that Judeo-Christian figures have in Islam.Muslims see the message of Islam as superseding all earlier revelations. They believe the Quran is the complete word of God and that Muhammad is the final Messenger and seal of the prophets. While Muslims respect much of the Torah, the Gospel and the Psalms, they believe that they have been changed by man over the centuries.
What does Islam say about violence?
The value of life is sacred in Islam, to violate it goes categorically against its principles. The Quran states “If anyone murders an (innocent) person, it will be as if he has murdered the whole of humanity. And if anyone saves a person it will be as if he has saved the whole of humanity” [5:32]. It is not permitted for Muslims to kill or oppress another. The Quran says, ‘Help one another in benevolence and piety, and help not one another in sin and transgression’ [5:2] “Allah loves not the aggressors” [2:190].
Often mistranslated as ‘holy war’ jihad is an all encompassing terms that literally means ‘to strive, or struggle’. Within Islam, its context is to strive in the path of God as exemplified by the Prophet Muhammad and his companions. Jihad pertains to the difficulty and complexity of leading a good life, struggling against the evil in oneself and to become virtuous and moral, to perform good actions and to contribute to the betterment of society. It is distressing that today a violent minority have abused the word jihad and have thus distorted its true meaning.
Life is a sacred trust from God and a human is a trustee who should handle the trust with honesty and skill, and with mindfulness of God. When God gives life He endows the human being with unique qualities and abilities, and charges the human with certain obligations. God means to help humankind fulfil the purpose of life and realise the goal of existence: to seek the pleasure of God in order to have eternal pleasure in the afterlife.
“Live in this world as if you are a traveller or a wayfarer” is a saying of the Prophet Muhammad. Life may be likened to a journey starting from a certain point and ending at a certain destination. It is a transitory stage, an introduction to the eternal life in the Hereafter.
According to Islamic teaching, the best use of life is to live it according to the guidance of God and perform good deeds in order to ensure a place in Paradise. As life is a means to an ultimate end, Islam has laid down a comprehensive system of principles and regulations on how to lead it. Muslims believe that we all belong to God and to Him is our final return. Life, therefore, is a complete circle and death is a doorway that leads to the true eternal existence.
The Quran states that men and women were created to be equal parts of a pair [51:49] and that their relationship is one of love and mercy such that they are like garments to one another. The revelation of the Quran elevated the status of women throughout society via numerous means: abolishing the status of women as property, allowing them to retain their maiden name after marriage, furnishing them the right to vote – thirteen centuries before women attained the right to vote in the UK, and the right to inheritance and owning property and businesses.
In Islam, education, social and political participation is a duty on both women and men. Early Islamic history saw the rise of Muslim women as scholars, politicians, businesswomen, jurists and doctors at a time when Europe still regarded women as a commodity.
Some verses of the Quran have been quoted to suggest gender discrimination, but there is a clear distinction to be drawn between verses that respond to specific social and cultural contexts and those that represent universal principles. A common area of confusion is the stipulation regarding polygamy, which actually restricted the practice rather than encouraging it at a time when Arabs in seventh century society married many women and being monogamous was not the norm, “if you will not be able to deal justly [with them, marry] only one” [4:3]. It may be noted here that today more than 99% of Muslim marriages are monogamous, polygamy being the exception rather than the rule.
Hijab is another source of interest and has been victim to much criticism and debate. Modesty in Islam is something that is stressed for both sexes, “Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and guard their modesty, and say to the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their modesty” [24:30–31]. Hijab literally means ‘veil’, ‘covering’ or, barrier’, while the Arabic word ‘khimar’ refers to the head scarf, however hijab has come to take on the meaning of a Muslim woman’s head-dress. Hijab symbolises many things: religious devotion, discipline, respect, identity and modesty. It is viewed by many Muslim women as another part of their ‘ibadah’ or worship of God since worship in Islam can be seen in a holistic sense, for example, giving charity or helping a neighbour is also seen as acts of worship.
Shariah covers all laws and governance pertaining to a Muslim’s life. The Arabic word literally refers to a waterway that leads to a main water source. Just as following all laws and principles set out by Islam, Muslims ultimately submit to the will of God, the source of life. Shariah is a framework that governs interactions between the individual and God, and between human beings. Both have public and private dimensions and both give Islam a prominent role on Muslim community life. Shariah is only applied to Muslims and not to people of other faiths and beliefs.
The Islamic civilisation nurtured genuine social equality irrespective of colour or race. During his final sermon, Prophet Muhammad said, All men are from Adam, and Adam is from clay. There is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab, nor a white person over a black person except in God-consciousness. These principles were implemented throughout daily life: in the mosques people of all colours and races met to pray shoulder to shoulder, they worked together in government and academia.
Among the closest companions of the Prophet was the former Abyssinian slave, Bilal who became the first man to call people to prayer, the first muezzin. Prophet Muhammad had ordered him to scale the Kabah on the day of the peaceful conquest of Mecca to call people to prayer. That this man could stand with the divine sanctuary under his feet was a declaration that piety transcends all things and it sent a powerful message to all that racism has no place in Islam.
Medical science made extraordinary progress during the Islamic civilisation and formed much of the basis of western healthcare today. Muslim experts pioneered in all areas of medicine including surgery, anatomy, ophthalmology, pharmacology, and physiology. The great Translation movement which began in the ninth century initiated under the Caliph Mamun in Baghdad, led to thousands of Greek works by Aristotle, Plato, Hippocrates, Ptolemy and Galen being translated into Arabic, and this knowledge was later transferred to Europe. Medical texts were not only translated, but their concepts and methods were further developed by the Muslims who pioneered in medical progress. Ibn Sina who was born in the tenth century, known as Avicenna in Europe, became renowned for his magnum opus, the cannon of Medicine – an encyclopaedia covering all aspects of medical practice which was used in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as the seventeenth century. The thirteenth century medic Ibn Nafis discovered pulmonary circulation in contradiction to Galen’s view that blood was continually being made and used up, nearly four centuries before William Harvey announced his discovery that blood circulated around the body in 1616.
Scientific discovery and learning flourished under Islamic civilisations for centuries. The remarkable leap in science between the eighth and twelfth centuries was known as the Golden Age of Islam. Today many words from the Arabic language enter the sciences, words like alchemy, algebra, algorithm and alkali. Muslims pioneered in fields of astronomy, mathematics, physics. Muslim astronomers established large observatories and produced highly sophisticated and accurate devices such as the astrolabe which was used in navigation through celestial calculation.
Quranic verses allude to scientific phenomena, like the cosmology: “And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit. ‘(God is) the one who created the night, the day, the sun and the moon. Each one is travelling in an orbit with its own motion” [21: 33], and to embryology: “We created you out of dust, then out of sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then out of a morsel of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed” [22:5].
Islam is not at odds with science that has been soundly established, and it is clear that the sciences have enjoyed a thriving development under the Islamic ethos enjoining the pursuit of knowledge and learning.
HAJJ & UMRAH
(STEP BY STEP)
|Click here for the rules and more details of Hajj and Umrah. For just the procedure to perform the rites correctly, read the following description.|
In this article the procedure to wear Ihram and to perform the rites of Hajj and Umrah are presented in a simplified way. Also included is the procedure to visit the Holy Prophet (pbuh)’s Tomb and his Mosque.
1. IHRAMThe literal meaning of Ihram is to make haraam (forbidden). When a haji pronounces the Niyyah (intention) of Hajj and Umrah and utters Talbiyah, certain halaal (permissible) things become haraam for him. This combined action (Niyyah and Talbiyah) is called Ihram. The two sheets that a haji wears are figuratively known as Ihram but the real Ihram is Niyyah & Talbiyah. If someone wears these two sheets and does not declare his intention and utter Talbiyah, he does not become a Muhrim. That is why, before Niyyah and Talbiyah, he can cover his head during two rakahs of Nafl, an act which is not allowed in the real state of Ihram.
- Preparations for Ihram. Comb your hair, shape the beard, trim your mustache, cut your nails, and remove unwanted body hair.
- Purification. Take a bath with the intention of Ihram otherwise do wudu. Here it is noted that there are two ways of purification:
- Purification of the body, shower or wudu.
- Internal purification, sincere repentance on your sins. Say something like this: “O Allah, I sincerely repent on my sins and seek your forgiveness.”
- Ihram Sheets. Men should wear a sheet of white cloth around the waist and cover the upper body with the other sheet. Women’s ordinary clothes are their Ihram. Both should wear the flip-flops (hawai chappal) so that the middle bones of the upper part of the feet are not covered.
- Nafl Salah. If it is not makruh (undesirable) time, offer two rakahs of nafl for Ihram by covering your heads.
- Advice. If going to Jeddah by an airplane, it is convenient to get into the status of Ihram inside the plane. Here is what you do. Do everything at home or at the airport except Niyyah (intention) and Talbiyah. Have your shower, pray two rakahs of nafl but you are still not in the status of ihram because you haven’t done the main thing yet, i.e., intention and Talbiyah which is done at or before the boundary line called Miqat.Go to the airplane and sit down with the white sheets on. In a Hajj flight when you are close to Miqat, the pilot will announce that this is the border line to make your intention and to say Talbiyah. Those who did not change their clothes before should do so now although it is not convenient inside the plane. Please note that:
- It is a good idea to ask at the time of boarding if the arrival of Miqat will be announced by the pilot. If not, make your intention and say Talbiyah on your own approximately one hour before you reach Jeddah.
- If you are flying with a group, follow the instructions of the group leader.
- Intention and Talbiyah. Now uncover your head and declare your intention. It is assumed that you are performing Hajj al-Tammat’u in which Umrah is performed first as described later in the “Kinds of Hajj”.
“O Allah! I intend to perform Umrah. Please make it easy for me and accept it from me. Amen.”
Immediately after that utter the words of Talbiyah three times and as often afterwards as possible. If you don’t remember it, you can say its translation in English or in any other language but Talbiah or its translation is pronounced in a loud voice by men and in a subdued voice by women.
La shareeka laka.
La shareeka lak.”
( Here we come,
O Allah, here we come !
Here we come.
No partner have You.
Here we come!
Praise indeed, and blessings, are Yours—
the Kingdom too!
No partner have You!)
- Du’a. After this recite Darud Sharif and supplicate to Allah Almighty any du’a in Arabic or in your own language.
- Prohibitions of Ihram. After intention and Talbiyah, you are in the status of Ihram and from this time on you should not do acts that are forbidden in Ihram , for example, here are some of the things a muhrim must not do:
- Cover head (men), cover face (women)
- Cover the middle bone of the upper part of the feet (Both men and women))
- Shave / cut hair
- Cut nails
- Wear perfume
- Wear stitched clothing (men) / (Women can wear their ordinay clothes)
- Hunting / killing
- Journey towards Makkah. When this sacred journey towards Makkah al-Mukarrama starts, recite Talbiyah frequently on the way. Then enter the city very humbly and with great fondness still reciting Talbiyah.After arranging for your residence, proceed to the Haram Sharif to perform Umrah.
2. HAJJKINDS OF HAJJ
There are three ways of performing the Hajj:
- Hajj al-Tamatt’u (Interrupted)
This is the easiest way of performing Hajj as described below.
- Hajj al-Qiran (Combined)
This denotes entering into ihram for both Umrah and Hajj at the same time, not taking it off until the day of sacrifice at Mina.
In Qiran one has to stick to the long-lasting restrictions of Ihram
- Hajj al-Ifrad (Single)
This means entering into ihram only for the Hajj and taking it off only on the day of sacrifice.
People who come to Saudi Arabia from other countries usually perform Hajj al-Tamatt’u. The Ihram they wear on or before Miqat is for Umrah only and perform Umrah first, then they slip into their ordinary clothes and on 8 Zil Hijjah they put on Ihram for Hajj at their residence in Makkah and perform the rites of Hajj. It is taken off on the day of sacrifice. This article describes the procedure to perform Hajj al-Tamatt’u.
HOW TO PERFORM UMRAH
THE RITES OF UMRAH: The only rites of Umrah are:
- Entering the state of Ihram
- Tawaf of Ka’bah
- Sa’yee between the hills of Safa and Marwah
- Shaving or clipping of the hair
IHRAM FOR UMRAH AND ENTERING MASJID AL-HARAM
- Ihram: You should be already in Ihram for Umrah before entering Mecca as mentioned above.
- Entering Masjid al-Haram: While reciting Talbiyah, enter Masjid al-Haram preferably through Bab
as-Salam with right foot first. Supplicate to Allah and proceed towards Ka’bah. You may recite the following supplication which is usually used before entering a mosque:
Allah huma aftah li abwabe rahmate ka
- First Sight: At the first sight of Ka’bah, keep your eyes fixed at Baitullah and standing at one side, it is suggested that you do the following:
- Say Allahu Akbar three times
- Say La Ilaha Illallah three times
- Proclaim Darud on our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) and very humbly and with tears in your eyes supplicate to Allah for whatever you wish. This is a special time for the acceptance of prayers.The idea is to praise and glorify your Creator before proclaiming Darud and supplications. Therefore, in lieu of Allahu Akbar and La Ilaha Illallah, you may recite some other similar holy verses if you so desire.
- After this, while uttering Talbiyah, move forward to perform Tawaf of Ka’bah.
TAWAF OF UMRAH
Tawaf means circling around something . Here it means moving around Ka’bah seven times with extreme love and devotion.
- Preparation: Pass the upper sheet of Ihram from underneath the right arm and put it on the left shoulder. This act bares the right shoulder and is known as Iztaba. Ablutions (vudu) is essential for tawaf. Reciting of Talbiyah is stopped when you reach Hajar-e- Aswad, the starting point of tawaf.
- Niyyah (Intention): Stand in front of Ka’bah facing Hajar-e-Aswad (the Black Stone) in such a way that the whole Hajre-e-Aswad is on your right side. To achieve this end, you may get help from the black stripe on the floor. This stripe should be on your right side. Then without raising your hands make Niyyah (intention) for Umrah:
” O Allah, I perform Tawaf of Umrah to please You. Make it easy for me and accept it from me.”
- Istilam: Now moving towards right, come in front of Hajar-e-Aswad and kiss it if possible, or touch it with a stick and kiss the stick; if that also is not possible, raise your hands to your ears keeping your open
palms towards Hajre-e-Aswad and say:
” Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lilla Hil Hamd”
and drop your hands down. Now point the palms of your hands again towards Hajar-e- Aswad and kiss them. This act of kissing Hajar-e-Aswad or pointing towards it is called Istilam.
- Tawaf Starts: After Istilam, turn right and start tawaf counter clockwise.WARNING
- The authorities often apply perfume to Hajar-e-Aswad, Rukn Yamani and Multazam. If so, do not touch them while in the state of Ihram, otherwise a dum will be required as a penalty.
- During tawaf, it is not permissible to face or turn your back towards Ka’bah except when you are kissing or pointing towards Hajar-e-Aswad.
- Ramal: For the first three circuits of Tawaf of Umrah and Tawaf of Arrival, men are required to move their shoulders and walk with quick short steps. This act is called Ramal and is Sunnah. They walk normally during the remaining four circuits.
- Supplications of Tawaf: There are no fixed supplications for tawaf but there are several recommended supplications listed in the books of Hajj and Umrah out of which the following supplication is easy to memorize:
“Subhan-Allah wal-hamdu-lillahi wa la ilaha ill-Allah wa-Allahu Akbar wa la haula wa la quwwata illa-billah.”
If you don’t remember these words, you may glorify Allah by repeatedly uttering:
La Ilaha Illallah, etc.
The Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) has said that there are two kalimahs that are light on tongue and (on the day of judgment) they weigh heavy on the scale (Mizan) and are liked by Allah. These kalimahs are:
Subhan Allah Wabe Hamde hi Subhan Allah Hil Azeem (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi)
You may also use supplications used in the daily Salah or you may seek forgiveness of Allah and ask Him whatever you wish in your own language.
- Hatim: Hatim is a semi-circular half-built portion which was originally a part of the Ka’bah but which could not be included in the main structure when the Ka’bah was rebuilt. It is obligatory to go around Hatim also while performing tawaf.
- Rukn Yamani and its Supplications: After passing the three corners of the Ka’bah you reach the fourth corner known as Rukn Yamani. Touch it with both hands or with right hand. There is a beautiful supplication to be used while walking between Rukn Yamani and Hajar-e-Aswad:
“Rabbana atina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil-akhirati hasanatan wa qina azabin-nar.”
Our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) has repeatedly recited this supplication. The first circuit is complete when you reach Hajar-e-Aswad.
- Seven Circuits: At Hajar-e-Aswad, start the second circuit by kissing it or pointing towards it as you started the first circuit, i.e., come in front of Hajar-e-Aswad, raise both hands to your ears with open palms towards it and say:
” Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lillah Hil Hamd
Now kiss both palms and drop your hands. After this go around Ka’bah as you did before and similarly complete the seven circuits.
- The End of Tawaf: At the end of seven circuits, do Istilam of Hajar-e- Aswad or point towards it eighth time which is Sunnat Mu’akidah. Also say:
“Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lillah Hill Hamd”
- Iztaba Finished : Now Iztaba is finished, therefore, you cover your both shoulders with upper portion of the Ihram sheet. This does not apply to women.
- Multazam: Now, come to Multazam which is a place five or six feet in length between Hajar-e-Aswad and the door of Ka’bah. This is a highly sacred place where prayers are accepted. Among a large crowd of people, if it is possible to reach Multazam, cling to it pressing your chest and cheeks, and while trembling and crying with devotion and with all humility seek Allah’s mercy, His blessings and ask Him whatever you wish. If you are unable to come close to Multazam, just face towards it and supplicate from a distance.
- Maqam Ibrahim: Next offer two rakahs of nafls behind and close to Maqam Ibrahim without covering
your head. If it is zawal time when sajdah is not allowed, you have to wait till this undesirable time is passed and then offer prayers.In the niyyah (intention), say that you are offering 2 rakahs of nafls wajib al- tawaf. Recite Qul ya ayya hal kafroon in the first rakah and Qulhu wallah in the second rakah. After this, supplicate to Allah in Arabic or in your own language. Ask Him whatever you wish and invoke His blessings.If it is not possible to offer this obligatory prayer near Maqam Ibrahim, it can be offered anywhere in Mataf, or in Hatim or anywhere in Masjid al-Haram or even at any place in Haram of Makkah.
- Zamzam: Now go to Zamzam well situated in the basement of the Haram about 200 feet from the Ka’bah’s door. There are separate portions for men and women. Zamzam is the best available water in the world. Drink this water to fill while in standing position saying Bismillah. Then supplicate to Allah:
“Allahummah inni as’aluka ilm-an naafi’an wa rizqan waasi’an wa shifa’am min kulli daa’in.”
(O Allah! I implore Thee for beneficial knowledge, for vast provisions, and for cure from every disease.)
The literal meaning of Sa’ey is to run or to make effort, but as a Hajj and Umrah term, Sa’ey denotes
walking back and forth seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah which are situated to the south and north of the Ka’bah respectively. Now there are only signs of these hills and the whole route between them is enclosed in a long gallery.Sa’ey has a historical background. Prophet Abraham left his wife Hazrat Hajra and infant son Hazrat Ismael in the wilderness of Makkah at the command of Allah. The mother and son lived for five days on the food and water they had when the water was completely finished. The mother ran frantically seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah in
search of water for her son. Suddenly the fountain of Zamzam oozed miraculously near the feet of Hazrat Ismael. Sa’ey is included in the rites of Hajj and Umrah to commemorate this event of search and struggle.
- Istilam of Hajar-e-Aswad. Before starting Sa’ey, do Istilam of Hajar-e-Aswad again the ninth time or point towards it, saying:
“Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lillah Hil Hamad.”
Now Proceed towards Safa. It is a Sunnah to be in the state of ablutions during Sa’ey.
- Start of Sa’ey at Safa. Climb the hill of Safa and make intention (niyyah) for Sa’ey:
” O Allah! I perform Sa’ey between Safa and Marwah to please You. Make it easy for me
and accept it from me.”
“Inn-as-Safa wal-Marwah min Sha’a’irillah.”
(Al-Qur’an 2 : 158)
(Indeed Safa and Marwah are among the Signs of Allah.)
After this climb Safa to the point from where you can see the Ka’bah, then facing the Ka’bah raise your hands in supplication, say Allahu Akbar three times and recite the following supplication or ask Allah whatever you wish:
“La ilaha ill-Allahu wahdahu la Sharika lahu, lahul-mulku wa lahul-hamdu wa ‘ala kulli shai’in Qadeer.”
If you don’t remember this, you may use the supplication recited earlier during Tawaf:
“Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lillah Hill Hamd”
- Proceed towards Marwah. Come down from Safa and move towards Marwah while reciting this supplication:
“Subhan-Allah wal-hamdu-lillahi wa la ilaha ill-Allah wa-Allahu Akbar wa la haula wa la quwwata illa-billa.”
If you don’t remember this supplication also, recite Subhan Allah, Alhamdu Lillah, Allahu Akbar repeatedly and keep moving. You may also praise Allah and ask for His mercy in your language or use supplications taken from the daily Salah. When you reach two green pillars between which men have to run but the women walk with their normal pace.
- At Marwah. When on top of marwah, praise Allah facing the Ka’bah and repeat the same supplications that were recited at Safa. One trip is over, second trip will be on Safa and third trip will be on Marwah.
- End of Sa’ey. In the same way, the seventh trip will end at Marwah. In all trips the men will run between the green pillars but the women will walk in a normal way.
- Two raka’at Nafl. If it is not an undesirable (Makrooh) time, offer two raka’ats of nafl in the al-Haram.
- Shaving or clipping of hair. After Sa’ey, men should get their heads completely shaved or get their hair clipped to the length of the upper third of their finger or a little more. Both shaving and clipping are permissible for men, though shaving is preferable. Women are, however, allowed to have a lock of their hair clipped. They are forbidden to shave their heads.
- Umrah is complete. After cutting the hair, umrah is complete. The restrictions of Ihram are finished. Now wear your everyday clothes and lead a normal life. Be thankful to Allah that He provided the opportunity for performing Umrah and lead rest of your life according to the commands of your Creator.
You may perform Umrah as often as you want according to the above procedure. And if you want to perform just a nafl Tawaf, follow the same procedure, however, in a nafl Tawaf there is no Ihram, no Ramal, no Iztaba and even no Sa’ey.
PERFORMANCE OF HAJJ
(STEP BY STEP)
|Red color is the symbol of Fard the performance of which is imperative otherwise Hajj and Umrah will be invalid.|
|Orange color is the symbol of Wajib the performance of which is obligatory otherwise Dam is required as a penalty.|
|Green color stand for Sunnah or Mustahab (desirable). Try to perform these acts but no Dam is required if not done.|
|White color is a symbol indicating general instructions.|
|8 Zil Hijjah–First Day of Hajj|
|Hajj Preparations||The date 8 Zil Hijjah starts after the Maghrib prayer of 7 Zil Hijjah. Complete all the Hajj preparations during these night hours.|
|Preparations for Ihram||Comb your hair, shape the beard, trim your mustache, cut your nails, and remove unwanted body hair.|
|Bath||Take a bath with the intention of Ihram otherwise do wudu.|
|Ihram||Men should wear a sheet of white cloth around the waist and cover the upper body with the other sheet. Women’s ordinary clothes are their Ihram. Both should wear the flip-flops (hawai chappal) so that the middle bones of the upper part of the feet are not covered.|
|Nafl Salah||If it is not makruh (undesirable) time, men offer two rakahs of nafl for Ihram in the Haram Sharif by covering their heads. Women can offer these nafls at home.|
|IntentionandTalbiyah||Now uncover your head and declare your intention saying:
Immediately after that utter the words of Talbiyah three times and as often afterwards as possible. Men should say it in a loud voice but women should say it in a subdued tone.
|Prohibitions of Ihram||Now the prohibitions of Ihram start. Recall their detail and follow the rules. From this point on men cannot cover their heads for the duration of Ihram.|
|Departure to Mina||After the sunrise proceed towards Mina. On the way, pronounce Talbiyah as often as you can and also utter other supplications. But it is ok to follow the procedure of your Mu’allim who usually arranges for hajis to leave for Mina during the night after Isha prayers.|
|In Mina||In Mina offer Zuhar, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers. Spend that night in Mina and on 9 Zil Hijjah, offer Fajr prayer there.|
|9 Zil Hijjah–Second Day of Hajj|
|Departure for Arafat||Offer Fajr prayer in Mina, say Takbir Tashriq (Allah-u Akbar, Allah-u Akbar La Ilaha ill-Allah wa-Allah-u Akbar, Allah-u Akbar wa Lillah-il-hamd) and Talbiyah. Get ready and reach Arafat by zawal (declining of the sun).|
|Bath||Take a bath, if possible, otherwise perform wudu and have meals. Packages of food are usually provided by the Mu’allim. Also take some rest.|
|Waquf-e-Arafat||Waquf is started at the beginning of zawal (declining of the sun) and ends at the sunset. Spend this time uttering Talbiyah, repent on your sins, seek forgiveness and mercy of Allah, say Darud Sharif and utter all the supplications (du’as) in Arabic and in your own language. It is better to do Waquf while standing but sitting down is also allowed.|
|Zuhr and Asr Prayers||In Masjid-e-Namrah, the imam leads Zuhr and Asr prayers, combined and shortened, at Zuhr time with one adhan but separate iqamahs. At other places in Arafat, some people similarly combine these two salats. But it is advisable that away from Masjid-e-Namrah, offer them at their proper times with jama’at as recommended by the most scholars.|
|Departure for Muzdalifah||When the sun sets in in Arafat, proceed to Muzdalifah without offering Maghrib prayer reciting Zikr and Talbiyah on the way.|
|MaghribandIsha Prayers||In Muzdalifah offer Maghrib and Isha prayers together at Isha time. For both prayers there is one adhan and one iqamah.
|Zikr and Du’a||This is a very blessed night in which glorify Allah, recite Darud Sharif, read Quran, utter Talbiyah and supplicate very humbly. Also take some rest.|
|Pebbles||Pick up forty-nine pebbles of the size of big grams (chick peas) if Rami is to be performed for three days and seventy if for four days.|
|Fajr Prayer and Waquf||At the Fajr time after two rakah Sunnah, offer Fard prayer with jama’at. then perform waquf.|
|Return to Mina||Proceed to Mina when the sun is about to rise.|
|10 Zil Hijjah–Third Day of Hajj|
|Rami of Jamrah Aqabah||In Mina, hit Jamrah Aqabah with seven pebbles one after the other. On account of risk to life, the old, weak or sick persons can perform Rami a little before sunset or at night.|
|Stop Talbiyah||Stop saying Talbiyah when you throw the first pebble. Also don’t stop for du’a. Just go to your residence and do Qurbani (animal sacrifice).|
|Qurbani (Animal Sacrifice)||There are three days designated for qurbani, i.e., 10, 11 or 12 Zil Hijjah. It can be done any time during day or night. It is usually easy to sacrifice an animal on 11 Zil Hijjah. Do qurbani yourself or ask a reliable person to do it for you.|
|Halq or Qasr||After qurbani men should preferably get their whole head shaved (Halq) but it is permissible to cut the hair (Qasr) of their whole head equal in length to a joint of a finger (about an inch). It is also permissible to cut the hair (about an inch) of one fourth of the head. A woman is prohibited to shave her head. She can cut about an inch long hair of one fourth of her head. But according to some scholars it is sufficient for a woman to have a lock of her hair clipped.
|Tawaf-e-Ziarat||Now perform Tawaf-e-Ziarat. It can be performed any time, day or night, from 10 Zil Hijjah to the sunset of 12 Zil Hijjah. Usually it is convenient to do it on 11 Zil Hijjah. Its procedure is similar to that of Tawaf of Umrah and it is essential that you have performed wudu. According to Sunnah this tawaf is to be performed after Rami, sacrifice and shaving or clipping of the hair, and every effort should be made to do that, but the Fard stands discharged even if Tawaf-e-Ziarat is performed prior to all these practices. As mentioned earlier, Halq or Qasr after Qurbani lifts all the prohibitions of Ihram but the private relations between man and wife are permitted only after this Tawaf.|
|Sa’ey of Hajj||After this perform Sa’ey. Its procedure is the same as that of Sa’ey of Umrah. It is a Sunnah to make sure that your wudu is intact|
|Return to Mina||Return to Mina when Sa’ey is done and spend the night there.|
|11 Zil Hijjah–Fourth Day of Hajj|
|Rami of Jamrarat||Throw seven pebbles on each of three Jamarat after zawal (decline of the sun). Rami is usually easy a little before sunset and at night. And it is permissible to do Rami at night if there is a risk to life.|
|Supplicate||Throw seven pebbles at Jamrah Oolah. Then move a little forward. And with your hands raised and facing Qibla, praise Allah and recite Arabic du’as or supplicate in your own words. There are no prescribed du’as.|
|Supplicate||After this throw seven pebbles at Jamrah Wustah. Here too facing Qiblah, praise Allah and earnestly seek his mercy and blessings. No particular du’a is prescribed here either.|
|Do not supplicate||Then throw seven pebbles on Jamrah Aqabah. But this time do not supplicate at all, after Rami just return to your place.|
|Second chance for Tawaf
|If you could not do Tawaf-e-Ziarah yesterday, do it today and return to Mina for overnight stay.|
|Zikr and Ibadah||At your residence, recite Quran, glorify Allah, repent on your sins, and seek forgiveness. Ask Allah whatever you want and don’t commit any sin.|
|12 Zil Hijjah–Fifth Day of Hajj|
|Rami of Jamrarat||Throw seven pebbles on each of three Jamarat after zawal (decline of the sun). Rami is usually easy a little before sunset and at night. And it is permissible to do Rami at night if there is a risk to life.|
|Supplicate||Throw seven pebbles at Jamrah Oolah. Then move a little forward. And with your hands raised and facing Qibla, praise Allah and recite Arabic du’as or supplicate in your own words. There are no prescribed du’as.|
|Supplicate||After this throw seven pebbles at Jamrah Wustah. And facing Qiblah, glorify Allah, recite Darud Sharif and supplicate earnestly for whatever you desire. There is no du’a prescribed for this occassion.|
|Do not supplicate||Then throw seven pebbles on Jamrah Aqabah and come back to your residence without any du’a.|
| Last chance for Tawaf
|If you could not do Tawaf-e-Ziarah earlier, it is essential to do it today before Maghrib.|
|Option||After today’s Rami, you have the option to return to Makkah before sunset. But if the sun sets before you are able to depart, remain in Mina for the third night and throw pebbles the next day in the same order.|
|Tawaf-e-Wida||After Hajj, when you intend to return to your country from Makkah, it is Wajib (obligatory) to perform Tawaf-e-Wida (Farewell Tawaf). Its procedure is the same as that of a Nafl Tawaf.|
(A Journey of Love)
Magnificent View of The Prophet’s Mosque
To visit Madinah is not a Hajj or Umrah rite, but the unique merits of the Prophet’s city, his Mosque and his sacred tomb attract every pilgrim to visit it. There is no Ihram nor talbiyah for the visit to Madinah or the Prophet’s Mosque.Unique Merit of the Prophet’s Mosque. The Prophet (peace be upon him) himself participated in the construction of this mosque, called it “My Mosque” and led prayers in it for years. He has also said that a salah performed in the Prophet’s Mosque is better than a thousand salats in any other place except Masjid al-Haram in Makkah.
According to Hazrat Anas, the Prophet (peace be upon him) has also said:
“The person who offers 40 prayers consecutively in my Mosque, without missing a prayer in between, will secure immunity from the fire of Hell and other torments and also from hypocrisy.” (Musnad Ahmad)
Visiting the Holy Tomb. It is a great privilege for the pilgrims to visit our beloved Prophet’s tomb. The Prophet (peace be upon him) once said:
“The person who comes solely for the purpose of paying a visit to my grave, has a right on me that I should intercede for him.” (‘Ilm al-Fiqh, Vol. V)
And he has also said:
“The person who performs Hajj and then visits my Tomb, will be regarded as though he had seen me in my worldly life.” (Baihaqi)
- Travel to Madinah and Niyyah. When you start travel to Madinah, Make niyyah (intention) as such:
” O Allah! I start journey to visit the holy tomb of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Please accept it from me.”
During this journey, recite Darud Sharif frequently. When the city of Madinah is in sight, show your extreme fondness and excitement and humbly enter the city while reciting Darud and Salam.
- Masjid-e-Nabvi. After putting your luggage at your residence, take a bath or perform ablutions (vudu), wear nice dress, apply perfume and proceed towards the Prophet’s Mosque while uttering Darud.
- Bab-e-Jibril. Enter the mosque through Bab-e-Jibril or Bab-us-Salaam or if this is not possible, enter through any other door.
- Right Foot. Place your right foot first in the entrance, praise Allah (such as say Allhu Akbar, Subhan Allah, Alhamdu Lillah, etc.), recite Darud and say:
“Allah humma aftah li abwabe rahamte ka”
- Two Raka’t Nafl. If it is not undesirable (Makrooh) time, offer two rakahs of nafl tahiyyat al-masjid (greeting of the masjid) preferably in Riaz al-Jannah near the tomb of the Prophet or otherwise anywhere else in the mosque.
- In front of the Holy Tomb.
1. The Holy Prophet 2. Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique 3. Hadrat Umar Farooq
In front of the sacred tomb of The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), there are three sections of brass screens and all three have holes in them. Look at the picture carefully. If you stand in front of the middle section between the pillars, you’ll see a big round hole on your left. This is in front of the face of the Holy Prophet. Adjacent to it is a door that stays closed. Right after it on the right side is a round hole which is in front of the face of Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique. On the right of it, there is another round hole which is in front of the face of Hadrat Umar Farooq.
Here is an enlarged view of the screen in front of the sacred face of our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him). Standing in front of it and facing it, say in a respectful and hushed voice:
“Assalamu alaika, ayyuhan-nabiyya wa rahmatul-lahi wa barakatuhu”
(Peace be on you, O Prophet, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.)
After this say:
“Assalatu was-salamu alaika ya Rasul-Allah”
“Assalatu was-salamu alaika ya Nabi-yallah”
“Assalatu was-salamu alaika ya Habib-Allah”
Then supplicate to Allah for good things in this life and the life after death. You may use the same supplication recited earlier during the Tawaf :
“Rabbana atina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil-akhirati hasanatan wa qina azabin nar.”
- Offer Salam of others. Now offer salam of relatives or friends in your own language or say:
“Asslamu alaika ya Rasul Allah min—-.”
After the word “min”, add the name of your friend or relative.
- Salam on Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique. Then move a little to the right and stand before the grave of Hazrat Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him). Greet him and supplicate to bestow His mercy and forgiveness on him.
- Salam on Hazrat Umar Farooq. Again move a little to the right before the grave of Hazrat Umar ( may Allah be pleased with him), and greet him and make supplication for him.
- Forty Prayers. Men should offer forty prayers (Salat) in the Prophet’s Mosque, but it is not a requirement of any kind. It is only Mustahab, i.e., rewarding if done, but if not done there is no sin.
- Other places to visit. Some of the other important places to visit are: Masjid Quba, Jannat al-Baqee, graves of Hazrat Hamzah and other
martyrs of Uhud (may Allah be pleased with them) and Masjid Qiblatain, etc.Among them Masjid Quba is the most important. It is the first mosque in the history of Islam whose foundation stone was laid down by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself on his migration to Madinah. To offer 2 raka’ats of nafl in it is equal to one Umrah. After visiting the Prophet’s Mosque and his tomb every pilgrim should try his best to visit it and pray in this mosque as well.
- Departure from Madinah. When you have to leave Madinah, offer your Salam again to the Prophet (peace be upon him), cry at this separation, supplicate to Allah and leave with the earnest desire to come back.
For More Hadith on Hajj: